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Molecular mechanisms of reversing neural degeneration by retinoic acid, a major derivative of vitamin A

Authors:

L. T. Ranaweera,

University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, LK
About L. T.
Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science
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S. Rajapakse,

University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, LK
About S.
Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science
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S. D. S. S. Sooriyapathirana

University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, LK
About S. D. S. S.
Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science
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Abstract

For the past hundred years since the discovery of vitamin A, the field of research associated with retinoids has been well evolved due to advances in molecular biology, chemistry, biochemistry and medicine. Vitamin A is an essential component in diet. Major derivatives of vitamin A such as retinol, retinaldehydes and retinoic acid are collectively considered as retinoids. Deficit of Vitamin A has a direct correlation with disease development in our body emphasizing the importance of retinol. Retinoic Acid is proclaimed as powerful mitogen acting in our body since the developmental embryonic stages where it is associated with many organ systems in body carrying out different functionalities. Retinoids carry out many functions of nervous systems. This review is mainly focused on contribution of Retinoic acid towards reversing the process of neural degeneration in pathological conditions achieved by neurodegenerative diseases and tumor inducing situations. Retinoids can act on neurons carrying morphogenesis of nerves by promoting stem cell differentiation. Activation of phospholipase A2 pathway can promote neural differentiation. Also by inactivating human Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 gene, retinols can suppress stem cell proliferation and initiate morphogenesis. This gene inactivation can be also used as a therapy to prevent malignant cell proliferation leading to tumors. Anti amyloidogenic activity is discussed in this review locates a significant importance in reversing neural degenerating process in diseased conditions. Moreover, Reactive Oxygen Species accumulation can be suppressed by Retinoic Acid where it can promote cell survival during pathological constrains. The revision of literature is carried out in depth revealing Retinoic Acid related putative drug target mechanisms, where we can use Retinoic Acid as a novel therapeutic drug in neurodegenerative diseases.
How to Cite: Ranaweera, L. T., Rajapakse, S., & Sooriyapathirana, S. D. S. S. (2017). Molecular mechanisms of reversing neural degeneration by retinoic acid, a major derivative of vitamin A. Ceylon Journal of Science, 46(3), 5–20. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/cjs.v46i3.7438
Published on 26 Sep 2017.
Peer Reviewed

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