Urine is an appropriate choice of specimen to study the biomarkers for metabolic and renal disorders because it is readily available with less harm to the patients. However, RNA extraction from voided urine is challenging due to the presence of RNases and cell scarcity. This study aims to optimize a protocol for RNA extraction from urine samples for gene expression studies in renal pathology. Hundred and two urine samples were collected from both healthy controls (HC) (
31 Dec 2022.